تبلیغات
کشت و صنعت فردوس - گرده افشانی و باروری در زردآلو
 
کشت و صنعت فردوس
سال حماسه سیاسی وحماسه اقتصادی


                    

خصوصیات گیاهشناسی

نام علمی: Purunus armeniaca

خانواده: Rosaceae

تعداد کروموزوم پایه n=8

تمام ارقام دیپلویید : 2n

فرمول گلG(1)+A(20)+S(5)+P(5)

منشا جغرافیایی:غرب چین و سیبری

کشورهای تولید کننده:پاکستان- ترکیه- ایران-اسپانیا-ایتالیا-امریکا-نصف تولید جهانی از کشورهای ایران مقام سوم در تولید

نزدیک دریای مدیترانه ای

ارقام عمده ایرانی: قرمز شاهرودی- نصیری-نوری شکرپاره-قیصی  و...

نوع مصرف: تازه خوری-برگه لواشک-کمپوت-مربا-استفاده از بذر

 

نیاز اقلیمی:

آب وهوا: در مناطق سرد و معتدله  و مدیترانه ای تابستان گرم وخشک بدون سرمای دیر رس بهاره

نیاز سرمایی:  250 -900 ساعت

آستانه مقاومت  به سرمای زمستانه:جوانه گل(25- درجه) جوانه رویشی (35- درجه)

خاک: عمیق شنی رسی- زهکش شده حساس به غرقاب

نور پسند

حساس به باد شدید

باردهی: اولین باردهی سال دوم وسوم(باردهی و تولید انبوه سال پنجم وششم )

عمر باردهی  : 40- 30  سال

 

خصوصیات گل:

گلها سفید و در بعضی رقم ها  در مرحله غنچه مایل به صورتی با کاسبرگ قرمز هر چه خنک تر صورتی تر

گل هرمافرودیت( اغلب اتو گام)

زمان گلدهی : اوایل بهار(جوانه گل زودتر از جوانه رویشی)

جوانه گل ساده و دو جوانه گل یک جوانه رویشی را احاطه کرده

 

میوه:

میوه شفت

منحنی رشد سیگمویید مضاعف(مرحله 3 به تنش آبی حساس)

میوه مطلوب : قند بالا و  گوشت سفت

شاخص برداشت:

رنگ گوشت

رنگ زمینه پوست

شکل و اندازه میوه

زمان تبدیل رنگ سبز به کاهی (اواسط اردیبهشت تا اواخر مرداد ماه)

 

عوامل موثر درگرده افشانی:

    طول عمر تخمک: کوتاه است

    پذیرش و آمادگی کلاله: بستگی به باد و رطوبت(گلها 48-12 ساعت پذیرای گرده )

    سرعت جوانه زنی و رشد  لوله گرده در خامه:  بسته  به دما(20-10 درجه)

    سرعت نمو کیسه جنینی:  8-3 هفته

    میزان دما طی دوره گلدهی:  دمای مطلوب 17-5 درجه

    کاربرد ازت اواخر تابستان: چون EPP کوتاه است (4 روز)  استفاده از ازت باعث ایجاد کیسه جنینی پر رشد و افزایش طول عمر تخمک میشود

ریزش:

1)      ریزش گل:  این نوع ریزش بعد از شکوفایی

    ماده عقیمی(دما  پایین) : عدم نیاز سرمایی- آسیب سرمازدگی

    عدم گرده افشانی

2)      در 30-17 روز بعد از گلدهی در اثر ناسازگاری(گامتوفیتی) قبل از  لقاح

3)      جون دراپ

4)      ژنتیکی

5)      ناسازگاری(پس از لقاح) : سقط جنین (کیسه جنینی رشد نکرده)

6)      رقابت


عوامل موثر بی نظمی باردهی:

    نیاز سرمایی (ژنوتیپ گل): درصد  ریزش ژنوتیپ دیر گل ده نسبت به زود گل ده بیشتر است

    ماده عقیمی : ماده عقیمی در اثر رشد ناقص کیسه جنینی است و در اثر گرما قبل شکوفایی گل (عدم تکامل مادگی )که باعث پوکی بذر و بی نظمی باردهی می شود (میزان عقیمی تخمدان 22% )

    بلندی خامه:  ژنتیکی

    خود ناسازگاری و کاهش میزان اتو گامی:  در اثر فقدان گرده کافی و سازگار

    EPPپایین درصد  پایین جوانه زنی گرده در زمان گلدهی

 

تاثیر مرفولوژی گل:

    موقعیت کلاله نسبت به سطح فوقانی بساک(بلندی خامه)

که بیشتر ژنتیکی است

سازگاری و ناسازگاری:

    رقم خودسازگار با خامه بلند شبیه خود ناسازگاری است

    در ارقام زردآلو  معمولاخود سازگاری (15 رقم)بیشتر از خودناسازگاری(4رقم) است

    ناسازگاری  از نوع گامتوفیتی است

    خود ناسازگاری باعث

1-    ریزش

2-    بی نظمی در باردهی

 

عوامل موثردرخود ناسازگاری گامتوفیتی:

    زمان گرده افشانی کلاله مرطوب باشد

    رشد لوله گرده در  بخش پایینی خامه متوقف شده باشد

    ناسازگاری بین غشا داخلی

(انتین )دانه گرده (هاپلویید) و مادگی (دیپلویید) وجود دارد

گرده افشان:

    زنبور ها در گرده  افشانی ارقام دگرگرده افشان عامل موثرند

    زمانی که   20% شکوفه ها باز شدند زنبورها  کار گرده افشانی را شروع می کنند

    زنبورها از رقم هایی که مقدار قند شهد آنها کمتر از 5% است ویزیت نمی کنند

    رقم  های خود گشن  مقدار قند پایینتر از  دگر گشن است

    تعداد کندو در هر هکتار3الی5 عدد (بسته به رقم می باشد)

    حداقل تعداد زنبور در هر درخت 2 عدد

    هوای خوب 9 عدد زنبور به ازای  هر درخت (6 ساعت در روز)

عامل سرما و گرده افشان :                                           

    انتخاب کندو سالم و بدون درز و با ضخامت بیشتر از 2cm

    قرار دادن کندو زیر سرپناه

مدیریت در باغ:

    آبپاشی باعث :افزایش تحمل سرما و کاهش خسارت سرمازدگی

روش های شیمیایی و هورمون ها:

    نقش پرولین در افزایش تحمل سرما(از طریق متابولیسم ازت و قندها)

تیمار هورمونGA (ppm 05/0)  (در اواخر شهریور)  واتفون (ppm 5) ( در اواسط مهر)باعث تاخیر در گلدهی

 

مدیریت در باغ:

1.      کاشت ارقام  دیر گل ده نیاز سرمایی بالا(خطر سرمای دیر رس بهاره)

2.      ارقام با خامه کوتاه

3.      ارقام  دارای درصد جوانه زنی  بالا(EPPبالا)

    کاشت با فاصله مناسب( m 5 × 6(

    هرس مناسب(شلجمی)(حذف و کوتاه کردن شاخه یکساله و اسپور)

تنک کردن:

1.      تنک دستی میوه: در 45-30 روز پس از گلدهی (قبل از سخت شدن هسته)

2.      تنک شکوفه به وسیله مواد شیمیایی(تیو سولفات آمونیوم) در مناطقی که خطر سرما دیررس بهاره وجود نداشته باشد

3.      تنک باGA  در اواخر شهریور

4.      در ارقامی که تناوب میوه دهی دارند تنک باید قبل از تشکیل جوانه گل صورت گیرد

    مدیریت در عامل گرده افشان



نوع مطلب : کشاورزی، زردآلو، خواص گیاهان، گیاهان دارویی، 
برچسب ها : زردآلو، خواص دارویی،
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جمعه 31 خرداد 1398 12:13 قبل از ظهر
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دوشنبه 6 خرداد 1398 01:01 قبل از ظهر
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پنجشنبه 26 اردیبهشت 1398 04:52 قبل از ظهر
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